Brain aneurysm is a disease of the blood vessels that supply blood to the brain. As a result of the segmental weakening of one of the layers forming the artery wall, it becomes prominent and transforms over time into an intracranial, celebral aneurysm. What are brain aneurysm symptoms?
Brain aneurysm – general information
The causes of brain aneurysm include, first of all, congenital predisposition – genetically determining the quality and strength of the arterial wall and atherosclerosis, as well as hypertension.
Due to the structure and shape, we divide aneurysms into: baggy (representing 80 percent of all lesions) and much less frequently occurring – fusiform. Regardless of the type, the mechanism of aneurysm formation is similar – under the influence of blood pressure, they constantly increase until they eventually burst, leading to bleeding or subarachnoid hemorrhage. It is the extravasation of blood from a ruptured vessel (aneurysm) into the subarachnoid space of the brain or spinal cord. Untreated subarachnoid hemorrhages are the cause of high mortality, which is why it is so important from a clinical point of view to quickly make a diagnosis and implement appropriate treatment.
Causes of brain aneurysm
One theory is that the cause of cerebral aneurysm is a congenital abnormality of cerebral arteries, in which there is less muscle and elastic fibers in the bifurcation of the artery. Such a place is weaker and undergoes gradual exposure under high blood pressure. Confirmation of this theory is the fact that in families where spinal hemorrhages previously occurred, brain aneurysms more often appear.
In addition to the deficit in the structure of the middle membrane and the elastic inner membrane of the vessel, other causes of aneurysms are also listed:
- developmental abnormalities in the area of the arterial circle of the brain,
- inflammation in the walls of the vessels,
- hereditary factors.
Aneurysms arise for a long time, hence they are most often detected in the fourth, fifth and sixth decades of life, and only sporadically occur in newborns.
Brain aneurysm rupture
The risk of a crack depends primarily on its properties and the patient. Women and the elderly are more at risk. Family predispositions also affect (relatives of people with subarachnoid bleeding are several times more likely to develop the disease). Factors that may predispose for cerebral aneurysm rupture include hypertension, and prognosis is exacerbated by smoking and alcohol abuse.
Cracks usually occur: during physical exertion, drinking coffee, blowing the nose, sexual intercourse or strong nervousness.
There are two methods of treating brain aneurysms: surgical placement of the aneurysm neck (surgical opening of the skull) and a neuroradiological procedure called embolization – a procedure that does not require opening the skull by filling the aneurysm with springs using a catheter inserted through the femoral artery.